<img height="1" width="1" src="https://www.facebook.com/tr?id=1582471781774081&amp;ev=PageView &amp;noscript=1">
  • Menu
  • crown-logo-symbol-1-400x551

Find it Quickly

Get Started

Select the option that best describes what you are looking for

  • Services
  • Models
  • Scientific Information

Search Here For Services

Click Here to Start Over

Search Here For Models

Click Here to Start Over

Search Here For Scientific Information

Click Here to Start Over

In Vitro

Boost oncology drug discovery with XenoBase®, featuring the largest cell line selection and exclusive 3D organoid models. Benefit from OrganoidXplore™ and OmniScreen™ for rapid, in-depth analysis.

Learn More

In Vivo

Enhance drug development with our validated in vivo models, in vitro/ex vivo assays, and in silico modeling. Tailored solutions to optimize your candidates.

Learn More


Experience ISO-certified biobanking quality. Access top biospecimens from a global clinical network, annotated by experts for precise research.

Learn More

Biomarkers and Bioanalysis

Leverage our global labs and 150+ scientists for fast, tailored project execution. Benefit from our expertise, cutting-edge tech, and validated workflows for reliable data outcomes.

Learn More

Data Science and Bioinformatics

Harness your data and discover biomarkers with our top bioinformatics expertise. Maximize data value and gain critical insights to accelerate drug discovery and elevate projects.

Learn More


Accelerate innovative cancer treatments with our advanced models and precise drug screening for KRAS mutations, efficiently turning insights into clinical breakthroughs.

Learn More


Advance translational pharmacology with our diverse pre-clinical models, robust assays, and data science-driven biomarker analysis, multi-omics, and spatial biology.

Learn More

Drug Resistance

Our suite integrates preclinical solutions, bioanalytical read-outs, and multi-omics to uncover drug resistance markers and expedite discovery with our unique four-step strategy.

Learn More

Patient Tissue

Enhance treatments with our human tumor and mouse models, including xenografts and organoids, for accurate cancer biology representation.

Learn More


Apply the most appropriate in silico framework to your pharmacology data or historical datasets to elevate your study design and analysis, and to improve your chances of clinical success.

Learn More

Biomarker Analysis

Integrate advanced statistics into your drug development projects to gain significant biological insight into your therapeutic candidate, with our expert team of bioinformaticians.

Learn More


Accelerate your discoveries with our reliable CRISPR solutions. Our global CRISPR licenses cover an integrated drug discovery platform for in vitro and in vivo efficacy studies.

Learn More


Rely on our experienced genomics services to deliver high quality, interpretable results using highly sensitive PCR-based, real-time PCR, and NGS technologies and advanced data analytics.

Learn More

In Vitro High Content Imaging

Gain more insights into tumor growth and disease progression by leveraging our 2D and 3D fluorescence optical imaging.

Learn More

Mass Spectrometry-based Proteomics

Next-generation ion mobility mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics services available globally to help meet your study needs.

Learn More

Ex Vivo Patient Tissue

Gain better insight into the phenotypic response of your therapeutic candidate in organoids and ex vivo patient tissue.

Learn More

Spatial Multi-Omics Analysis

Certified CRO services with NanoString GeoMx Digital Spatial Profiling.

Learn More

Biomarker Discovery

De-risk your drug development with early identification of candidate biomarkers and utilize our biomarker discovery services to optimize clinical trial design.

Learn More

DMPK Services

Rapidly evaluate your molecule’s pharmaceutical and safety properties with our in vivo drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) services to select the most robust drug formulations.

Learn More

Efficacy Testing

Explore how the novel HuGEMM™ and HuCELL™ platforms can assess the efficacy of your molecule and accelerate your immuno-oncology drug discovery programs.

Learn More

Laboratory Services

Employ cutting-edge multi-omics methods to obtain accurate and comprehensive data for optimal data-based decisions.

Learn More

Pharmacology & Bioanalytical Services

Leverage our suite of structural biology services including, recombinant protein expression and protein crystallography, and target validation services including RNAi.

Learn More


Find the most appropriate screen to accelerate your drug development: discover in vivo screens with MuScreen™ and in vitro cell line screening with OmniScreen™.

Learn More


Carry out safety pharmacology studies as standalone assessments or embedded within our overall toxicological profiling to assess cardiovascular, metabolic and renal/urinary systems.

Learn More

Our Company

Global CRO in California, USA offering preclinical and translational oncology platforms with high-quality in vivo, in vitro, and ex vivo models.

Learn More

Our Purpose

Learn more about the impact we make through our scientific talent, high-quality standards, and innovation.

Learn More

Our Responsibility

We build a sustainable future by supporting employee growth, fostering leadership, and exceeding customer needs. Our values focus on innovation, social responsibility, and community well-being.

Learn More

Meet Our Leadership Team

We build a sustainable future by fostering leadership, employee growth, and exceeding customer needs with innovation and social responsibility.

Learn More

Scientific Advisory Board

Our Scientific Advisory Board of experts shapes our strategy and ensures top scientific standards in research and development.

Learn More

News & Events

Stay updated with Crown Bioscience's latest news, achievements, and announcements. Check our schedule for upcoming events and plan your visit.

Learn More

Career Opportunities

Join us for a fast-paced career addressing life science needs with innovative technologies. Thrive in a respectful, growth-focused environment.

Learn More

Scientific Publications

Access our latest scientific research and peer-reviewed articles. Discover cutting-edge findings and insights driving innovation and excellence in bioscience.

Learn More


Discover valuable insights and curated materials to support your R&D efforts. Explore the latest trends, innovations, and expertly curated content in bioscience.

Learn More


Explore our blogs for the latest insights, research breakthroughs, and industry trends. Stay educated with expert perspectives and in-depth articles driving innovation in bioscience.

Learn More

  • Platforms
  • Target Solutions
  • Technologies
  • Service Types

Tumor Organoid Q&A: PDXO Models and Immuno-Oncology Applications

applications of tumor organoids for immuno-oncology studies and drug screening using PDX-derived organoids (PDXO)Review the key questions and answers on PDX-derived organoids (PDXO) and tumor organoid immuno-oncology applications from our recent webinar on 3D in vitro drug discovery.

PDXO Models and Characterization

What's the Difference between PDX-Derived Organoids (PDXO) and 3D Cell Culture from PDX Models?

PDXO are organoids that are grown using the same protocols, and develop following the same biological principles, as organoids derived directly from patient tissue. In contrast, 3D culture from PDX models uses PDX material dissociated and admixed with ECM to perform an assay which cannot be propagated any further.

How Frequently is Organoid Characterization Performed? If an Organoid is Passaged Through 10+ Passages (for example)?

We work to build a master cell bank first, and this will vary in terms of passage for each model. The master cell bank organoids are then characterized once we know that the growth of an organoid can be achieved and has been SNP verified. From this, a working cell bank is developed and again SNP verified.

What is the Correlation between PDXO and Parental PDX Model Response? Are Some Indications Better than Others? Do Chemotherapeutics Correlate Better or Worse than Targeted Therapies, or Biologics vs Small Molecules?

We have correlated PDXO IC50 with the TGI for the parental PDX model. In depth data was shown in a previous webinar available from our website.

The correlation is based on 59 matched sets (this number will increase as more data is generated) across 4 cancer types, 11 different models, and 12 different test agents. We’re looking to dissect this out further into cancer types, therapeutic class, and mutational status as we generate more data, and hope to have more clarity on which is more predictive.

Are you Going to Offer Something Analogous to Your OmniScreen™ Cell Based Screening Service, Where Costs are Reduced by Multiple Participants Screening against Selected Models?

At the moment we are focussing on our three main screening options:

  • Library screening to identify lead compounds and improve the patient-relevance of hit finding
  • Efficacy quantification to compare agent efficacy across patients and compounds and predict in vivo response
  • Combination strategy screening to evaluate (multiple) combination regimens and find optimal in vivo dosing regimens

and we have made these studies as cost effective as possible. We can also adapt screens to have multiple readouts.

Are the Only Assay Readouts you provide CTG? Can You, for example, do Microscopy?

For the purpose of the screening options we have streamlined this offering for CTG but yes we can provide other readouts.

Organoids and Immuno-Oncology Applications

As Tumor Mutational Burden (TMB)/Neoantigen Production is Key for Predicting Positive Efficacy for some Solid Tumors, how is TMB Evolved in Organoid Models?

We have WES on our PDX and PDXO models, however we don’t have matched normal tissue to assess TMB. We can assess the mutational load relatively within the cancer type, as well as microsatellite instability or DNA mismatch repair.

As organoids have been shown to retain mutational concordance from the corresponding tumor in vivo, then we are confident that the mutational landscape representation is sustained in the organoids.

Have you Ever Checked the Immune Population within Tumor Organoids?

The HUB Organoid method develops the epithelial compartment, so there are no immune cells present.

Can you Assess Immunotherapies In Vitro with PDXO or PDO?

We are currently developing a co-culture assay and conditions, and we shared some of our allogenic T cell co-culture approach in a poster at the AACR-NCI-EORTC meeting last year (available here). In these studies, we used healthy PBMCs pre-activated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 for 3 days before co-culture with organoids. Validation of this assay with immunotherapies is still ongoing.

We also provide tumor organoid killing assays by NK-mediated ADCC killing again using PBMC from healthy donors, and we’re also providing organoids for testing CAR-T cell therapies.

In your Assay, Do you Only See the Endpoint Result of T Cell Co-Culture with Cancer Organoids? Or Do you also Evaluate the T Cell Migration Dynamics or Accumulation Dynamics on Spheroids?

The assays are designed to assess organoid killing, and also assess the tumor reactivity of the T cells, so these are very much co-cultures with admixing at different ratios, without studying migration.

Contact us with any further questions on our organoid platform and models.

Related Posts